Grid Frequency Simulation

Grid Frequency Simulation

Grid Frequency Simulation

A1 Engineering, a TRAX partner since 2014, recently completed and published a detailed examination of the Korean power grid, specifically the impact of increasing distributed renewable power sources. Dr. Ki-Yeol Shin of A1 Engineering joined with researchers at Yeungnam University and other Korean partners to investigate system frequency deviations and decreased system inertia brought about by intermittent renewable outputs. The team investigated battery energy storage systems (BESS) and their use as a primary frequency control (PFC) solution.

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Installation status of BESS System for PFC in South Korea power grid (2013~2017). (1) The study includes 376 MW and 103 MWh batteries at 13 substations on the Korean mainland, and 4 MW power conditioning stations and 8 MWh batteries at an additional substation on Jeju Island.

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ProTRAX Software can model a huge variety of physical processes. Visit our website to learn more.

TRAX’s ProTRAX software system was used by the Yeungnam University team to evaluate the frequency stability of a simulated system representing the Korean power grid. ProTRAX can easily model multiple systems and seamlessly manage the combined output. The TRAX simulation software is a modular, dynamic system that allows the user to interconnect modules representing physical components for a variety of processes (batteries, AC/DC electrical, generation assets, pumps, valves, etc.), into any physically realistic configuration. ProTRAX can realistically model both conventional power sources and renewable energy sources, which Dr. Shin includes in his network.

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National power grid model and configuration of A1GridSim simulation modes. (1) “A battery energy storage system (BESS) with high flexibility and fast responsiveness is gaining traction as a solution to this problem.” ‒ Development and Performance Verification of Frequency Control Algorithm and Hardware Controller Using Real-Time Cyber Physical System Simulator

The ProTRAX model of the Korean power grid, named A1GridSim in this publication, represents generation assets, transmission, transformers, and load. The entire grid model is managed by ProTRAX, which can simulate transient phenomena in each physical component. The unique dynamic testing environment allows Dr. Shin and the team to assess the effect of the BESS on system frequency, inertia, and other characteristics in real-time. The team paid special attention to the relationship between the power deviation and the frequency deviation. They found that physical response delay time (PRDT) was a significant contributor to frequency drop and a faster PRDT improved system stability.

TRAX congratulates Dr. Shin, A1 Engineering, and the Yeungnam University team on another successful publication! Their findings, Development and Performance Verification of Frequency Control Algorithm and Hardware Controller Using Real-Time Cyber Physical System Simulator, are published for a Special Issue with MDPI journals, Power System Dynamic and Stability Issues in Modern Power Systems Facing Energy Transition.

Citation (1)
Jin, Tae-Hwan, Ki-Yeol Shin, Mo Chung, and Geon-Pyo Lim. 2022. "Development and Performance Verification of Frequency Control Algorithm and Hardware Controller Using Real-Time Cyber Physical System Simulator" Energies 15, no. 15: 5722.


Grid Frequency Simulation

August 31, 2022

TRAX has delivered a carbon capture simulator for a 150 MW coal-fired unit that models the capture of the full flue gas stream.  The system provides both CO2 and SO2 capture, delivering the captured CO2 to a pipeline for industrial use and underground storage.

TRAX Carbon Capture Model Included:

—CO2 and SO2 capture
—Sulfuric acid plant
—CO2 and SO2 amines filtration and purification
—CO2 compression
—CO2 pipeline and cavern

As shown below, TRAX built a modular simulation replicating the plant layout using our software, ProTRAX.  ProTRAX contains a full suite of modules specific to carbon capture functions and can model a wide variety of processes.  TRAX also virtually replicated the user interface that appears in the plant.  

Model Scope

ProTRAX is a modular software that can easily integrate multiple models for larger projects.


TRAX organizes the simulator model to match the layout of the site or process being modeled.


Depending on the Absorber module selected, the module can remove water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) from an air or gas stream.


Each ProTRAX module is backed by comprehensive documentation, including a general description, module inputs and outputs, and mathematical formulae.


The training value of a simulator occurs in the interactive screens that replicate the site equipment.

Upon initial delivery, the TRAX simulator was used to debug control logic and processes prior to site installation and to provide operations training prior to plant startup.  There was a clear need to begin training operators as early as possible since they had multiple unfamiliar systems to learn.

Thanks to the ProTRAX simulator, our customer gained considerable insight into control functionality and system interactions, resulting in modification to some control logic and correction of simple errors.  TRAX was able to assist with controls tuning, and helped in development of initial plant Operating Procedures.

The latest upgrade brings the model into alignment with the as-built plant condition by updating and tuning the simulator models to match the current plant dynamics. In addition, TRAX has updated the simulator controls and HMI graphics to the as-built state.  Keeping the simulator aligned with the current plant condition is critical to maintaining a positive training value, and is of paramount importance to the customer.